Phytoremediation Aspectsof Energy Crops Use in Ukraine
Today clearing of contaminated soils from heavy metals, pesticide residues is very important problem for Ukraine. Soil pollution is considered to be the result of the functioning of metallurgical and chemical industrial enterprises, as well as the irrational application of chemical plant protection means in the agricultural sector. The range of such preparations as well as the areas of contaminated soils are increasing every year. Phytoremediation with the help of herbaceous plants is one of the most effective methods of decontamination. This list of plants should be supplemented by perennial energy crops, taking into account the absorbing powers of their root system. The basis for preparing the material was the multiple scientific literary sources of domestic and foreign scientists on an investigated theme, the working-out of relevant techniques and scientific and practical recommendations. We applied both general scientific methods (dialectics, analysis and synthesis) and special ones for conducting of analytical review of literature. The largest area of soil in Ukraine is contaminated with cobalt, molybdenum, and copper, whose content exceeds not only the background values but also the maximum permissible concentrations (MPC). It has been defined that the intensity of heavy metals transition in the system “soil-plant” of the energy crops has the following form Cd→Cu→Zn→Pb. Perennial energy crops are capable to create quickly an above ground phytomass and to form an aggressive root system that enables them to accumulate heavy metals from the soil. They can be new and important plants for phytoremediation. At the same time, the energy crops are allocated in accordance with agroclimatic zoning taking into account plant responses to the growing conditions and also applying the scheme of soil remediation from heavy metals. It has been established that energy crops (Switchgrass and Silvergrass) are Hyperaccumulators. They actively absorb heavy metals and partialy accumulate them in their underground and above ground parts. Silvergrass (Miscanthus giganteus) provides higher yield than switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), though switchgrass has less dry matter content, higher accumulation of heavy metals in plant phytomass but the maximum permissible concentration is lower than regulated standards. Silvergrass (Miscanthus giganteus) provides higher yield than switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), though switchgrass has less dry matter content, higher accumulation of heavy metals in plant phytomass and maximum permissible concentration is lower than regulated standards. On termination of the vegetation, the above-ground vegetative mass of these plants can undergo to proper processing that is an additional source of non-ferrous metals or biofuel production for energy purposes.
cology; soil clearing; heavy metals; energy crops; phytoremediation; phytomass; biofuel., екологія; очищення ґрунтів; важкі метали; ГДК; енергетичні культури; фіторемедіація; фітомаса; біопаливо.